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   2021| September-December  | Volume 21 | Issue 3  
    Online since December 13, 2021

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Incidence of Sports Injury and its relationship with psychological factors: A qualitative review
Karanbir Singh, Paramvir Singh
September-December 2021, 21(3):75-80
Sports injury is prevalent, extensive, expensive, and to an extent a preventive problem. This review paper aims at identifying the psychological and psychosocial factors predicting injury occurrence. Qualitative and mixed methods studies were reviewed indicating psychological predictors of injury. In the discussion, the current qualitative research is critiqued and evaluated on psychological predictors. It has even concluded that history of stressors, personality traits (aggression, perfectionism, hardiness, etc.), daily hassles, previous injury, coping strategies, negative life events, and anxiety are psychological factors predicting injury risk.
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Normative values for single-leg hop performance in Saudi healthy population
Husam Almalki, Lee Herrington, Richard Jones
September-December 2021, 21(3):87-92
Introduction: The purpose of functional outcome measurement is to assess the performance of patients with knee joint injuries and their ability to return to physical activity. However, normative data for these measures are limited and generally include a wide range of ages and activity levels. Normative data can be used to make comparisons with patient populations. It can also be used to compare differences between individual legs. The purpose of this study is to establish normative data for single-leg hop for distance in healthy population. Methods: One hundred and five healthy and active male participants were recruited to participate in the study, 35 in each age group (18–24, 25–34, and 35–44 years old). Participants who voluntarily participate in the study are physically active people. They also ensured that in the past 6 months, they had not suffered any injuries to their lower limbs, which prevented them from performing daily exercises. Participants were asked to perform a single-leg hop on right and left leg and measure the hop distance by using a tape measure. The distance of the jump was calculated by dividing the hop distance by the length of the participant's leg and then multiplying by 100, the hop data is normalized to the length of the limb to obtain a percentage value. Results: For all participants, the mean distance for single-leg hop was 136 cm. Aditionally, normalising the hop to leg length was 151%, which means the participants could hop 1.5 their leg's length. The results showed that there was no difference in the performance of the left and right legs of the middle-aged group (25–34). For the youngest and oldest age groups (18–24 and 35–44), there was a statically significant difference in the performance of the left and right legs. All of the participants scored 85% of limb symmetry index. There were significant differences in hop performance according to age, as aging results in changes and a decrease in hop performance, and in older group, hop performance decreases are considerable. Conclusion: This study has generated normative reference data that may be used to determine the impairments linked to musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders, along with ways of monitoring the progression of the disorder over time.
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Effect on aerobic capacity, body mass, and body mass index in university soccer players during the COVID-19 pandemic
Mohammad Ahsan, Mohd Salim Javed
September-December 2021, 21(3):102-106
Purpose: Due to increasing prevalence of the COVID-19 virus, athletes were unable to train optimally. This study aimed to determine the differences in aerobic capacity, body mass, and body mass index in soccer players as the effect of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: Fourteen male participants were recruited from the university soccer team. Anthropometric characteristics were as follows: age = 20.75 ± 1.48 years, height = 174.35 ± 5.59 cm, body mass = 68.95 ± 6.17 kg, and body mass index = 21.92 ± 0.94 kg/m2. Single-group pretest and posttest designs were selected to conduct this study. A multistage fitness test determined aerobic capacity. ANOVA test was used to identify aerobic capacity, body mass, and body mass index differences between pretest and posttest on university soccer players. Results: The pretest and posttest were similar in anthropometric characteristics, and there were no significant differences in age (P = 0.382), height (P = 0.106), and body mass (P = 0.068). Our findings showed significant differences between pretest and posttest for aerobic capacity (P = 0.042) and body mass index (P = 0.037) in university soccer players. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a significant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the soccer player's aerobic capacity and body mass index. These findings may have implications, namely, as functional test's organization, administration, and outcomes while testing the players. Team coaches, trainers, and physiologists must consider the effects of lockdown on the players' performance while preparing players for competition. Further researchers should be established to modify other types of tests, conduct studies with a larger sample and population, and add other variables.
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An analysis of physical performance parameters among university netball and volleyball female players
Mohammad Ahsan, Mohammad Feroz Ali
September-December 2021, 21(3):107-114
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyse netball and volleyball players for differences in physical performance parameters among female university players. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight female participants (14 netball + 14 volleyball players) participated in this study voluntarily. Any player with lower extremity musculoskeletal injury or a record since the last three months was excluded from the study. The average age of players was 19.54±0.69 years, body weight 52.99±10.51 kg., height 156.71±5.34 cm., and body mass index 21.57±4.09. Anthropometrical characteristics were measured with the help of a bioelectrical impedance analyser, while physical performance parameters (Muscular endurance, lower extremity power, dynamic stability, agility, speed) were determined by the numerous functional tests. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in physical performance parameters except agility (p=.041) and speed (p=.015) variables between netball and volleyball university female students. A significant positive relationship was also found in some of the physical performance parameters irrespective of the sports. Conclusion: The study's findings show that physical performance parameters do not differ significantly in female netball and volleyball players. Team coaches and physiologists must consider functional test outcomes while preparing players for competition. The individual training program should also be established on test outcomes, which is more likely to improve performance.
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Generalized joint hypermobility, musculoskeletal injuries, and psychological factors among dancers in Lagos state
Ashiyat Kehinde Akodu, Yusuf O Balogun, Oladunni Caroline Osundiya, Caleb A Adeagbo, Ibironke Esther Ogunleye
September-December 2021, 21(3):93-101
Introduction: Dancers are athletes who are vulnerable to musculoskeletal injuries and hypermobility, and their emotional level is very important for optimal performance. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and its association with musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors among dancers in Lagos state. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical survey involving 114 dancers (54 males and 60 females), selected from two dance groups in Lagos state. The participants completed a 31-item musculoskeletal pain questionnaire, 9-item validated Beighton index, and 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics of Chi-square and summarized using mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentages at alpha level of 5%. Results: The results showed that the 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dancers was 77 (67%), and the knee, 25 (21.9%), was the most commonly affected body site. The prevalence of GJH was 81 (71.1%), with the majority having distinct hypermobility. The level of anxiety among dancers was extremely severe, 35 (30.7%). There was no significant association (P = 0.487) between GJH and the 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors (P > 0.05) among dancers. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and joint hypermobility among dancers. The knee was the most frequently injured joint. The majority of the dancers' joints are distinctly hypermobile, and most of the dancers have extremely severe anxiety. Musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors did not influence GJH.
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Efficacy of the tension-free Lichtenstein mesh hernioplasty in the successful management of inguinal hernias in Saudi Arabian athletes
Bader Hamza Shirah, Hamza Asaad Shirah, Ibraheem Abdulaziz Zabeery, Osama Abdulqader Sogair, Ahmed Medawi Alahmari
September-December 2021, 21(3):81-86
Background: The tension-free mesh hernioplasty has attained worldwide acceptance because of the superior outcome in decreased rates of recurrence to 1%–2%. The Lichtenstein method of hernioplasty has evolved as the most liked technique to use. In this study, we would like to evaluate the outcome of the Lichtenstein mesh repair of the sport-induced inguinal hernias in Saudi Arabian athletes. Methods: A prospective cohort study of 274 Saudi Arabian athletes who had the Lichtenstein technique as a method of repair for inguinal hernias from January 2005 to December 2014 was conducted. A polypropylene mesh was used in all patients. Results: The mean age reported was 23 ± 2.41 years (range 18–33). The mean time to return to full athletic activities was 8 weeks (6–10 weeks). The high effectiveness of the Lichtenstein repair of inguinal hernias in Saudi Arabian athletes was recorded. No recurrence at all has been registered during a 24-month follow-up period. All athlete patients completed 24 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Lichtenstein tension-free mesh repair was found to possess a high efficacy in the treatment of inguinal hernias in Saudi Arabian athletes promising low morbidity rates and an astonishing recurrence rate of 0%. The remarkable ability of the athletes to reach the same preoperative athletic level in a short period and the high satisfaction rate among the athletes makes the Lichtenstein tension-free mesh repair an efficient approach in managing inguinal hernias in terms of the clinical, athletic, and concurrent socioeconomic outcome.
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Personal physical activity and physical activity counseling habits among primary care physicians of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, 2018
Nasser S Muharib, Ayman Afifi, Mohammed H Hakami
September-December 2021, 21(3):115-126
Objective: Physical activity (PA) practice is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases. Primary care physicians are well placed to be a role model and to promote their patients regarding PA practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prove the positive relationship between being physically active physician and providing a proper counseling about PA practice. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study targeting primary care physicians of Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, 2018. The researcher designed a self-administered questionnaire for data collection from the target population, undertaken validation process, and it was then analyzed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 214 primary care physicians participated in our study. 56.5% were male, and 43.5% were female. The prevalence of physically active physicians who practice PA as recommended by most of PA recommendations (Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, American Heart Association, American Diabetes Association, American College of Sports Medicine, etc.) was 37.9%, while 62.1% were physically inactive. The prevalence of physicians who recommend PA according to these recommendations was 78%. Significant association was found between physician's PA practice and providing effective PA counseling (P = 0.008) and showing confidence to counsel all patients about PA as a part of preventive care provided by primary care physicians (P = 0.038). 72.9% of the participants reported that lack of time is the major barrier to counseling patients about PA. Conclusion: The prevalence of physically active primary care physicians was 37.9%. 78% of them practice an effective PA according to the current recommendations. Significant association was found between physician's PA practice and providing an effective PA counseling (P = 0.008) and showing confidence to counsel all patients about PA as a part of preventive care provided by them (P = 0.038). Lack of time was the major barrier to counsel patients about PA.
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