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   2020| January-April  | Volume 20 | Issue 1  
    Online since October 18, 2020

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The effectiveness of cryotherapy in the management of sports injuries
Sami Awadh Alharbi
January-April 2020, 20(1):1-5
Cryotherapy is widely applied and accepted as a beneficial treatment for soft-tissue injury and postoperative management. It is the one of the most effective interventions for pain management and swelling in acute sports injuries. However, the most efficient Cryotherapeutic agent remains unknown. This paper analyzes different methods of application of cryotherapy in sports injury rehabilitation based on recent scientific evidences. This information will assist health-care practitioners who are involved in sports injury and postoperative management.
  16,220 337 -
Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on functional reach of lower extremity using Y-balance test
Munazzah Orooj, Supriya Awasthi, Adil Ali Ansari, Nida Imtiyaz
January-April 2020, 20(1):6-12
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching in improving flexibility and functional reach of the lower extremity using Y-balance test (YBT) among amateur badminton players. Methods: Thirty male students (age 20 ± 1.8 years, height 162 ± 8.2 cm, weight 51 ± 9.2 kg, body mass index 20 ± 3.9 kg/m2) from Teerthanker Mahaveer University having hamstring tightness and without any musculoskeletal disorders formed the sample of this study. Subject's age, height, and weight were recorded. Informed consent was taken from all the subjects. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups each consisting of 15 subjects. Hamstring flexibility for each group was measured using YBT. Subjects of the experiment group were treated with PNF stretching; stretch was performed three times a week for a total training period of 4 weeks. However, the subjects of control group were not subjected to any type of stretching. Results: The study results revealed a significant improvement in PNF stretching protocol compared to the control group. The findings of the study provide beneficial evidence that PNF stretching significantly improves flexibility and YBT performance among amateur badminton players. Conclusion: The study concludes that 4 weeks of PNF training in amateur badminton players has favorable changes in their functional reach, i.e., hamstring muscle when compared from pretest.
  3,042 137 -
Physical activity and behavioral regulations for exercise in patients with noncommunicable disease in central Saudi Arabia
Franziska Vanadis Isabelle Saller, Amal Mohammed, Fahad Al Dhaferi
January-April 2020, 20(1):13-21
Objective: Saudi Arabia's population has experienced a significant raise of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) over the past decade. Physical activity (PA) is recognized to positively impact the course of NCD, but existing evidence indicates poor PA protocol adherence across the nation. The self-determination theory (SDT) proposes that perceived autonomy and motivational quality for exercise play a determining role in behavioral regulation. The aim of this study was to explore SDT-based constructs and PA-related characteristics in Saudi patients with four major NCD. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the relations between PA and relative autonomy for exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes (T1DM and T2DM), and hypertension (HTN) in a hospital in Riyadh. Results: Two hundred and sixty-three patients >18 years participated in the study. Patients accumulated 2016 metabolic equivalent minutes of PA per week (standard deviation = 1683.40). PA levels differed significantly between CVD and HTN, CVD, and T1DM patients (P < 0.00). T1DM was the most active and CVD the least active patient group. PA levels were highly correlated with the degree of perceived autonomy for exercise (r (244) = 0.65, P = 0.000) and differed significantly between some patient groups (P < 0.05). Motivational quality significantly predicted PA level in the sample (F[4, 241] = 48.639, P < 0.000, R = 0.447). Conclusion: Our results indicate that perceived autonomy and motivational quality are underestimated determinants of PA in patients with T1DM, T2DM, HTN, and CVD in Saudi Arabia. Differing NCD-PA profiles suggest the need for disease-specific treatment approaches.
  2,190 78 2
Perceived performance goal barriers of Olympic athletes: An exploratory study
Greg Sun
January-April 2020, 20(1):22-26
Background: Goal pursuit is not without its challenges because athletes may encounter barriers along the way. Moreover, these barriers may or may not produce positive affect in the setting of goals or performances. Therefore, this study explored the perceptions of Olympic athletes and their experiences encountering performance goal barriers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was used to collect data from participants using semi-structured interviews. The interviews focused on their goals and goal setting including the barriers they perceived during their athletic career. These interviews served as the major data source and generation of the relevant themes. The purposefully sampled participants who agreed to be interviewed were scheduled according to a date and time that best suited their calendars. Participants were seven male individual sport Olympic athletes, representing four sports. These elite athletes competed in a total of 10 Games. The average age at their first Olympics was 25.1 years old. Results: The analysis indicated that participants reported experiencing injury as their primary barrier. Participants did not mention facilities or equipment as a potential barrier. Furthermore, although they encountered barriers, they were reluctant to modify their long-term goals by remaining committed to their goals. Conclusion: Research findings revealed that coaches, athletes, and strength and conditioning staff should pay particular attention to training and competition schedules that may initiate or aggravate injury. Moreover, all sports personnel should be cognizant that athletes can experience stress due to injury or illness. Therefore, goal setting should include planning and strategies to collaboratively deal with potential barriers.
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COVID-19 and conduction of sports event: Risk assessment and risk mitigation
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
January-April 2020, 20(1):27-28
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant amounts of interruption in the different domains of life in all the affected nations. Owing to the pandemic and due to the fear of the emergence of a new chain of transmission, most of the planned events or religious events have been canceled or deferred, and the same stands true even with sports events. However, gradually, the sports events have started to happen again in some of the settings; nevertheless, we have to keep in mind that most of these sports events include mass gathering, and thus, it becomes a must to take appropriate precautions to avoid any outbreaks of the disease. In general, it is expected that all the organizing bodies should conduct a comprehensive risk assessment of the sports event. In conclusion, ensuring the safety of the participants, audience, and the general population has to be given the utmost priority while planning any sports event in the current times of COVID-19 pandemic. The need of the hour is to perform a thorough risk assessment and take a decision based on the prevailing risk, the quality of risk mitigation measures, and the effectiveness of the risk communication system.
  1,669 72 -
How to deal with heterogeneity in people with low back pain?
Moazzam Hussain Khan
January-April 2020, 20(1):29-30
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