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   2016| September-December  | Volume 16 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 28, 2016

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Injuries in archers
Anant Kumar Singh, Sang-Hoon Lhee
September-December 2016, 16(3):168-170
The popularity of archery has soared over the last few years, particularly among girls and women. Archery can be described as a comparatively static sport requiring strength and endurance of the upper body, in particular, the forearm and shoulder girdle. Although archery is not commonly associated with injuries, but injuries in archery are more common than one's thought and archers do present with a wide spectrum of injuries involving shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, peripheral nerves, and spine. It is suggested that in order to avoid these injuries, sports coaches and archers should be aware of the risk of these injuries and should advise training accordingly.
  9,436 291 -
Benefits of physical activity for autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review
Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan
September-December 2016, 16(3):163-167
The purpose of this systematic review was to collect and synthesize evidence from the studies of physical activity (PA)-based interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Systematic search procedures identified 11 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, and (c) outcomes. Across the corpus of studies, the preliminary search identified 47 studies and exercise was implemented with 115 male (76%) and 36 female (23%) with ASD, aged 4-19 years. A variety of exercise activities were employed (e.g., skating, jogging, horse and bike riding). Following the exercise interventions, decreases in stereotypy, aggression, off-task behavior, improved objective sleep on nights. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop the way in which exercise prescription provided and increase the sample size those participate in PA. In conclusion, PA reduces stereotypy or self-stimulatory behavior and increases participation in more PAs.
  9,260 269 3
Prevalence of low back pain among medical practitioners in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh
Mohammad Almalki, Mohammed H Alkhudhayri, Ahmad A Batarfi, Shorowk K Alrumaihi, Shaker H Alshehri, Sami I Aleissa, Nader S Alkenani
September-December 2016, 16(3):205-209
Context: Lower back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal symptoms among health care providers. Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the effects of LBP among medical practitioners in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (over six months period of time). The study included a group of physicians, surgeons, nurses, paramedics, and other medical practitioners of different nationalities. A survey was sent to 174 conveniently selected participants to be filled and completed. Both descriptive and inferential tests were reported. Chi-square, t-test, and ANOVA tests were used when appropriate. A P < 0.05 was identified as statistically significant for all the tests. Results: The lifetime prevalence of back pain among all the participants was found to be 83.9% (146). The mean age of participants was 33.5 ± 9.6. Male participants were 121 (71.2%). The sample included 114 (65.9%) medical doctors. It has been found that 135 (92.5%) of the study participants had a minimal disability, 10 (6.8%) had moderate disability, and only 1 (0.7%) had severe disability. Conclusions: Work-related complaints are a major issue facing employees and employers worldwide. It varies according to the type of work. LBP is a common problem that many workers suffer from. It is recommended to conduct further researches to study the burden of this problem in different aspects, such as psychological and social.
  7,345 362 4
Injuries in pin bowlers
Anant Kumar Singh, Sang-Hoon Lhee
September-December 2016, 16(3):171-173
The increasing acceptance of pin bowling as a sport, as well as the keen competition among bowlers, necessitates the identification of different injuries found in bowlers. Bowling, like all other sports, has very sport-specific stresses and stressors all impacting the body in various ways. To the best of our knowledge, there has been very minimal research and information on bowling-related injuries. With many adults opting professional bowling as a career option, we need to better understand these injuries pathophysiology so that better training programs can be planned. The study objective is to describe the pattern of injuries in pin bowler and to locate the factors that may predict these musculoskeletal disorders.
  7,459 104 -
Comparison of static and dynamic balance between football and basketball players with chronic ankle instability
Ganeswara Rao Melam, Adel A Alhusaini, Vaithiamanithi Perumal, Syamala Buragadda, Kirandeep Kaur
September-December 2016, 16(3):199-204
Background: Athletic injuries such as ankle sprain are most common in football and basketball games. Chronic ankle injuries affect the balance performance of these players and influence their future sports' performances. Objective: Purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic balance in ankle instability among university level football and basketball players. Methods: This study cross-sectional observational design included 24 collegiate level players (12 footballers and 12 basketballers) with chronic ankle instability and were inactive from sports for more than 3 months with a score of 85% or less on the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure Sports scale. Static balance was tested by stork standing test, and dynamic balance was assessed using the Star Excursion Balance Test. Results: Significant differences were observed in the static and dynamic balance between the injured and noninjured limbs for both the football and basketball groups (P < 0.05). Further analysis showed that the difference in the dynamic balance between football players and basketball players was not significantly different (P > 0.05), whereas the static balance was better in football players than the basketball players. Conclusion: This record of differences in the balance due to injury supports the need for sports-specific rehabilitation program for injured players to improve their balance which is essential for playing their sports efficiently.
  7,221 261 1
Common injuries amongst Indian elite archers: A prospective study
Roshan Gopal Adkitte, Sonal Shah, Sonam Jain, Soniya Walia, Nivedita Chopra, Haresh Kumar
September-December 2016, 16(3):210-213
Introduction: India ranks third in mixed team recurve, it is highly essential to know the sites that the archers are most commonly injured. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the most standard injuries among the archers. This study holds a greater importance to create awareness among the players about the faulty techniques and the varying dynamics during the arrow releasing in archery with the quality of the arrow shot. Materials and Methodology: The survey included both national and International/Olympian players with a varying period of training schedule. The total number of Indian archers included in the study was 138 (compound bow archer 63, recurve bow archer 56, andIndian bow archers 19). The details comprised age, height (cm), weight (kg), training age, training sessions in a week (days), duration of each training session (h), number of bows shot in a single session, bow weight (kg), and draw length (inches). They were also asked whether or not they experienced pain in the last 2 years and a simple questionnaire of injury was filled and these were then calculated and the most common sites where recorded. Results: the most common injuries were the draw arm shoulder with a total percentage of 19.79, followed by blisters on fingers with a percentage of 17.01 and then injuries by the string touch being 15.97%. Conclusion: The draw arm shoulder pain was the most common affecting 19.79% injury followed by blisters on the fingers and string touch.
  6,850 238 -
Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma infiltration: A stupendous treatment for chronic tendinopathy
Abhijeet Sahu, Pradeep K Singh, Sohael Khan, Shraddha Singhania, Mahendra Gudhe, Gaurav Mundada, Vasant Gawande
September-December 2016, 16(3):185-191
Background: Tendinopathy is a common and perplexing problem facing clinicians. It is the most common reason that patients seek medical attention for a musculoskeletal condition and accounts for approximately 30% of patient visits to general practitioners. Although originally considered an inflammatory problem, histopathologic analysis of tendinopathy has revealed evidence that this process is predominantly degenerative and is characterized by hypercellularity, vascular hyperplasia, and collagen disorganization. Since tendinopathy is primarily a degenerative condition, several new treatments have been developed in an attempt to stimulate tissue regeneration. One of these treatments is an injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics on outpatients having tendinopathies. These patients were managed with PRP infiltration at the tendinopathy site. Current proposed sample size in the study is sixty patients between the age of 21 and 65 years. The patients who are clinically diagnosed were given PRP at the tendinopathy after identifying the site under ultrasound guidance. Patients were assessed according to the visual analog scale (VAS) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score pre- and post-injection. Results: Patients in the fourth decade had major preponderance. Male gender was dominant with the problem of tendinopathies. Supraspinatus tendinopathy was most common among all tendinopathies. Comparison of VAS with each follow-up showed 22.5% decrease in 1 st week and 58.58% relief in 4 th week. After evaluation using DASH score, there was 7.23% improvement in 1 st week, 12.43% in 4 th week, and 57.63% in 24 th week. Conclusion: The current investigation represents clinically based outcome study to evaluate the effectiveness of treating tendinopathy with ultrasonography-guided PRP injection. There is reduced the risk of infection, better improvement regarding pain, restoration of mobility, and duration of time required for clinical improvement. None of these patients reported with the recurrence of symptoms when followed up after 6 months of treatment.
  4,670 131 -
Occupational physical fitness and eating attitudes of emergency medical services students in Riyadh
Khaled Salah Kamel, Khalid Saad Aljaloud
September-December 2016, 16(3):179-184
Aims: To compare occupational, physical fitness and eating attitudes among students at a college for emergency medical services (EMSs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with American Council on Exercise (ACE) international physical fitness guidelines. Settings and Design: Seventy-three EMS students with a mean age and body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.1 years and 26.3 ± 6.6, respectively, were randomly selected. Participants were asked to complete three suggested ACE physical fitness tests and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 questionnaire. Materials and Methods: We used test protocols and administration to calculate student group percentages and compare results with the ACE guideline test-termination criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: We used a one-sample t-test to assess differences in obtained versus reference scores. Results: Moderate to strong correlations were clearly observed between most variables, especially in the trunk (flexor - extensor) endurance test (r = 0.67, P < 0.01). In addition, a strong correlation between left- and right-sided trunk lateral endurance was observed (r = 0.76, P < 0.01). Regarding ACE guidelines for EMS practitioners, the subjects of this study were not significantly physically fit. Finally, only 16.9% of students exhibited eating disorder risks requiring professional attention. Conclusions: The low level of core physical fitness indicates the need for a special exercise program with a primary focus on EMS responders' abilities to fulfill occupational requirements. A physical exercise intervention program that emphasizes static balance, postural control, and overall flexibility and strength might be important for the prevention of occupational risk among EMS students.
  4,013 131 -
Effect of resistance exercise training on blood pressure in Indians: Systematic review
Sonu Punia, Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan, Vandana Punia
September-December 2016, 16(3):174-178
Backround: Hypertension (HTN) is an emerging "silent killer" causing 6% deaths worldwide. HTN is defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg, a diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg. Methodology: A database of randomized controlled trials on the effect of exercise training on BP is searched. A systematic search was conducted of resistance training for the period November 1, 2015, until February 28, 2016. The search strategy included key words RE, training, BP, and India, and these were combined with a sensitive search strategy to identify randomized controlled trials. About 1220 articles published since 2012 were identified for review. Of these 1220 publications, 93 trials were included in the review. Some of these trials involved several groups of individuals or applied different training regimens so that a total of six studies were used for review. Collectively, exercise intervention length minimum from 4 weeks. For those studies that reported data, the between study frequency ranged from 1 to 7 times per week, and intensity ranged from 30% to 100% of 1 repetition maximum (RM) for dynamic resistance training. Resuts: The results suggest that there was a mean reduction of 4.84 mmHg in SBP and 3.11 mmHg in DBP in resistance training group. Conclusion: The present review concludes that RE training reduces the BP in Indians.
  3,807 137 -
Athletics training of the first- and fourth-semester engineering college students and their learning preferences
Ajith Pakkala, Amrith Pakkala
September-December 2016, 16(3):196-198
Background: Athletics training is given using personality models, information processing models, social interaction models, and instructional preference models. This study uses the visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK) inventory to gather information as per instructional preference model for assessing learning preferences among the first- and fourth-semester engineering students with reference to athletics training. Aim: This study is designed to evaluate and compare instructional learning style preferences of the first- and fourth-semester engineering students in India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on the first- and fourth-semester engineering students with each group having 100 students each. VARK Inventory version 7.1 was administered to determine the preferred instructional mode based on four sensory modalities - VARK with reference to athletics training. Results: Eighty percent of the first-semester students had unimodal learning preferences out of which 11%, 49%, 5%, and 15% of students preferred VARK modes, respectively. In comparison, significantly higher percentage (51%) of the third-semester students had multimodal learning preferences. Their unimodal learning preference was 4% visual, 6% auditory, 5% read/write, and 14% kinesthetic modes. The first-semester students' auditory instructional style was the most preferred method, whereas the fourth-semester students preferred the kinesthetic mode. Conclusion: With the passage of time in the engineering course, students adapt to a multimodal method of instruction. It is therefore in the interest of students to strengthen, encourage, and adopt a multimodal approach to physical training rather than resorting to conservative unimodal approach.
  3,399 62 -
Evaluation of patellofemoral pain syndrome in national level weight lifters with anterior knee pain
Gaurai Mangesh Gharote, Sonal Mukeshkumar Shah, Ujwal Laxman Yeole, Pravin Pandurang Gawali, Roshan Gopal Adkitte
September-December 2016, 16(3):192-195
Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is an overuse injury in athletes usually chronic. It is the most common cause of anterior knee pain in athletic population. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in weight lifters with persistent anterior knee pain from at least from 3 months. Materials and Methods: The data for the study had been collected from various sports institutions across Pune and under 20 matches 2015. The survey comprised 50 players (44 male and 6 female) aged 15-30 years. Kujala questionnaire/anterior knee pain scale (AKPS) was used in the entire athletic population to judge the severity of pain. The players further were assessed by patellar grinding test which was followed by radiological investigations (X-ray finding). The athletic population that was diagnosed positive on the patellar grinding test underwent screening for radiological examination. Results: It was observed that 80% players with anterior knee pain were diagnosed with PFPS on the patellar grinding test and 62.5% of those 80% were diagnosed on X-ray investigations. Kujala or AKPS on interview reported 18% of lifters with fair results, 46% with good results, and 36% with excellent results. It was also observed the bilateral limbs were affected in 22%, in unilateral limb dominant was more affected. Conclusion: PFPS was prevalent in weight lifters.
  3,221 115 -