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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2022
Volume 22 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-46

Online since Monday, April 4, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Collateral ligament injury of the knee in sports p. 1
Mohammad Abdullah Almalki, Ibrahim Ahmed Altawayjri, Mohammed Talal Alzahrani, Ali Awash Aljizani, Ali Mohammed Aseeri, Abdullah Metab Alanazi, Ahmed Khalaf Alanazi, Nawaf Mohammad Alkhirat
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_33_21  
Athletes are particularly susceptible to medial or lateral collateral ligament injuries of the knee while playing sports. Sports are responsible for nearly half of all collateral ligament injuries, many of which are mild to moderate in severity. Frequently, the collateral ligaments are injured in association with other ligaments of the knee, necessitating surgical intervention and other measures to treat these injuries and restore full range of motion and function in the knee. In this review, we first discuss the stabilizing and supportive role of the collateral ligament and address why it is particularly susceptible to injuries in a sports setting. We then address the types of sports most frequently associated with damage to these ligaments, and note the role of gender and contact versus noncontact sports in the varying incidence rates of sports-related injuries observed in the literature. While conservative measures are typically used to treat collateral ligament injuries, more severe cases (particularly injuries that involve multiple ligaments) do require surgical intervention, with outcomes depending on the affected structures. We conclude by discussing a number of preventive strategies that can be employed to protect these ligaments – and the knee – from new or recurrent damage, with the hope that these preventive measures will be incorporated into future practice. Ultimately, athletes and clinicians should be informed on how to prevent debilitating injuries to preserve athletic performance and enhance or maintain an athlete's current quality of life.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Arabic version of the anterior cruciate ligament return to sport index: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation p. 9
Husam Almalki, Lee Herrington, Richard Jones
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_30_21  
Purpose: Several factors influence the decision to return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The literature revealed a link between psychological factors and RTS rates following ACL injury. The anterior cruciate ligament return to sport index (ACL-RSI) scale was created to assess the psychological impact of an ACL injury. A rigorous process of cross-cultural adaptation and validation is required to achieve equivalence between the original publication and the target version of the scale to administer the ACL-RSI to Arabic speakers. The purpose of this research is to translate and culturally adapt (ACL-RSI) for Arabic people who have ACLR. Materials and Methods: Translation and backward translation of the English version of the ACL-RSI were performed in accordance with the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Following translation, 105 ACLR patients were recruited to complete Arabic version of RAND-36-item health survey, Arabic version of the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score and visual analog scales, along with the Arabic (ACL-RSI) scale. We looked at test–retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity, and content validity. Results: The internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's = 0.94). The test–retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.92 and a standard error of measurement of 4.41. There was a good construct validity with no floor or ceiling effects, as well as good convergent and divergent validity. Conclusions: This study confirmed that the Arabic (ACL-RSI) scale has good measurement properties, demonstrated that this instrument is an excellent tool to evaluate psychological factors for Arabic patients with ACLR.
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Effect of COVID-19 pandemic on athletes' anxiety p. 16
Mohd Owais Irfan, Deepika Singla
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_27_21  
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had an adverse effect on all the aspects of life and on people from all walks of life. The sheer damage caused by this pandemic on the affected individuals as well as the socioeconomic harm is immeasurable. Due to the scale of disruption in lifestyles and day-to-day activities of the population, it has become quite difficult to assess how the pandemic has affected people of various occupations and segments. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on athletes' anxiety. Methods: Forty-one athletes filled out a questionnaire distributed through the Internet through Google forms to measure their anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption score. It was filled once for prelockdown (baseline score) and then for postlockdown and then compared. A two-tailed t-test was then conducted. Results: The t-value of the trait anxiety score (total) was ‒0.694 with P = 0.492, and that of the worry score was 0.477 with P = 0.636. The t-value for concentration disruption score and somatic trait anxiety score was ‒2.115 (P = 0.041) and ‒0.371 (P = 0.712), respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on athletes' anxiety.
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Comparison of endurance, agility, and core strength between national and state level female football players p. 21
Zoya Zaidi, Moattar Raza Rizvi, Ankita Sharma, Preeti Saini, Shishir Nigam
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_3_22  
Objective: The present research was undertaken with the aim of evaluating and comparing the levels of performance in terms of aerobic endurance, agility, and core strength among female National and State level football players. Methodology: Using a convenience-sampling method, 65 female football players were recruited in this study. These players were further divided into two groups: national level female players (N = 30) and state level female players (N = 35). Aerobic endurance was checked through Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test Level 1 (YYIRTL1), agility was measured through the change of direction ability test, and core strength was evaluated by the Plank test. Results: Using YYIRTL1, we found that national level players (Mean = 16.67, standard deviation [SD] = 2.01) had greater aerobic endurance than state level players (Mean = 14.63, SD = 1.59). The national players (Mean = 15.81, SD = 1.71) had better agility than the state players (14.67, SD = 1.54). The duration of prone posture was longer in national players (86.93, SD 4.82) than in state players (79.89, SD 4.65). Conclusion: Findings showed that state level players have low aerobic endurance, low agility, and less core strength as compared to national level players.
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Prevalence and type of injuries among gym members in Saudi Arabia p. 30
Suhad Alnasser, Anas Alyamani, Ibrahim AlDawod, Ahmad Almujil
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_36_21  
Introduction: Strenuous exercise and misuse of fitness machines can lead to injury. We conducted this study to better understand the extent of the problem and identify the causes of injuries, so we can develop and implement preventive measures to reduce the risk of injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through a self-filled online questionnaire prepared in Arabic. The questionnaire was distributed through social media to gym members between 18 and 55 years old. Results: In this study, we were able to collect 285 responses to our questionnaire. Most of the participants were females (71.6%) and more than half of the respondents were between 25 and 34 years of old (54.4%). The reliability results of the questionnaire showed that Cronbach's alpha was 0.749. Considering the prevalence of injuries among gym members in this study, we found that 29.2% of participants reported having injuries that were related to the gym with a mean frequency of 2.13 times. Moreover, the main affected body part because of injuries was the shoulder (40.5%), followed by foot (32.4%) and back (25.7%). Among 83 members who indicated having injuries at the gym, 58.1% of them reported visiting a hospital because of the injuries and 11.6% of them reported the need for surgical intervention. Moreover, the incidence of injuries was significantly higher in males than females (53.1%, 19.6%, P = 0.000) and obese participants rather than normal-weight participants (48.4%, 28.9%, P = 0.024). Conclusion: We had developed a validated questionnaire with good reliability to assess the prevalence of gym-related injuries, their causes, and type. Our results showed that the prevalence of injuries among gym members was 29.2%. This prevalence of our study was lower than reported in other studies. However, most of the reported injuries were among males. The most common sites of injury were the shoulder, foot, and back. The most common causes of injury were torsion, severe stress, and iron weights. Moreover, our data confirmed the previous literature that injuries caused by gym exercise could lead to serious consequences that lead to lower quality of life.
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Prevalence of shoulder pain and disability in young Saudi bodybuilders, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia p. 38
Mohammad Abdullah Almalki, Mohammed Talal Alzahrani, Abdulmalek Abdulrahman Aljulaihim, Ali Mohammed Mofareh Aseeri, Mohammed Abdullah Alshehri, Mohammed Khalid Abuhaimed, Emad Masuadi
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_31_21  
Background: The shoulder complex has been alluded to as one of the most common regions of sports injury. Bodybuilding is getting more popular among Saudi youth in recent years. A vast number of bodybuilders suffer from pain during bodybuilding training. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of shoulder pain and disability in young Saudi bodybuilders, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: this is a cross-sectional study that included subjects from multiple large gyms that offer bodybuilding equipment throughout Riyadh city. All subjects were sampled conveniently. Collected data included demographical data and a disability and pain tools (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [DASH], and Penn Shoulder Score [PSS] scales). Results: A total of 363 subjects participated in this study. the point, last month, last 6 months, last year, and lifetime prevalence of shoulder pain among bodybuilders were 23.4%, 35.5%, 51.4%, 57.6%, and 67.2%, respectively. 111 (30.6%) received treatment because of a shoulder injury and they either received medication, physiotherapy, or surgery with 37%, 57%, and 6%, respectively. Positive DASH sports disability has a significant higher prevalence of shoulder pain of all types (P < 0.001). Using the categorization of the pain score, bodybuilders with a positive PSS have significantly higher prevalence of shoulder pain of all types (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Shoulder pain and disability are very prevalent in bodybuilding reaching up to 67.2% in lifetime prevalence of bodybuilders.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Safe organization of the Beijing Winter Olympics 2022 amid the ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic p. 44
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_5_22  
The ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the functioning of each and every sector and the same applies to the sports sector. Olympics are a major sporting event that involves the gathering of thousands of athletes, supporting staff, organizing team members, spectators, and media personnel. It won't be wrong to state that such events have all the potential to initiate multiple new chains of transmission of infection jeopardizing the safety of all the people involved. The Beijing Winter Olympics have been scheduled from February 4, 2022, but the pandemic has influenced the qualifying process of some of the events, forced the organizers to test athletes for COVID-19 on a daily basis to detect any potential outbreak at the earliest, etc., It has been decided that the whole event will be organized in a closed-loop atmosphere, wherein three gated bubble areas have been earmarked. To conclude, the organization of a major event like the Olympic Games during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a huge responsibility. In order to ensure smooth conduct and to minimize the incidence of cases or to interrupt the chain of transmission, we all have to rise to the occasion and extend our maximum support to the organizers.
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