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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2022
Volume 22 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-88

Online since Tuesday, August 30, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

The secrets to saving soccer penalty kicks: An observation from coaching eyes Highly accessed article p. 47
Nuruzzaman Nayan, Muhammad Shahidul Islam
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_11_22  
Penalty kicks are crucial in football games since the team that scores in the penalty kick has a better chance of winning. A goalie must use a number of strategy and skills to win this psychological combat between the penalty kicker and the goalkeeper. This research sheds light on the approaches to protect the penalty kicks. During the penalty kick, the goalkeeper may pay close attention to the direction of the penalty kicker's nonkicking foot's toe, inside of the knee of the kicking foot, the position of the patella/kneecap of the kicking foot, and the hip direction. The penalty kicker's eyes are usually observed right before the penalty kick. The penalty kicker would occasionally kick in one way while looking in the opposite direction. In addition, a goalie cannot be too low in set position because this will lengthen his reaction time to stop the ball, which is practically difficult to do for the top corners of the post. A goalie should watch plenty of videos of penalty kickers and study their techniques for taking penalties. In all aspects, and based on some proven studies, it is no surprise that retrieving a soccer penalty kick is a decisive component of winning against the opposition. Altogether, the goalkeeper's ability to save a penalty kick is mostly dependent on his or her cognitive-perceptual skills in soccer.
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Gait during simulated and natural leg length discrepancy: Inconsistencies in the literature p. 51
Syed Murtaza Hussain Andrabi, Dhananjoy Shaw
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_14_22  
For convenience, researchers have simulated leg length discrepancy (LLD) by installing an insole or a heel lift in one foot of healthy participants. However, the results of these studies have contradicted the results found in the studies that investigated naturally occurring LLD. The objective of this article was to discuss the methodological considerations of simulated and natural LLD conditions in detail and highlight the inconsistencies in their findings. The studies simulating LLD demonstrate the acute effect of LLD for this reason they should be disparaged for not being physiologic, leading to non-LLD characteristic gait patterns in terms of kinetic and kinematic parameter's. This puts a question mark when it comes to generalizing the results of simulated studies to those that have true LLD.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Levels of physical activity and barriers to exercise among family physicians at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia p. 61
Lama Mohammed Al Saud, Ghadah Abdulrahman Algabr, Abdulkareem Alanazi
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_1_22  
Introduction: To be healthy and mentally alert, physicians need to engage in physical activity, and this will improve the delivery of health care in the primary care setting. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the physical activity of family physicians and determine the common reasons why they do not engage in physical activity. Methods: We conducted a study among family physicians employed at Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the final quarter of 2021. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to all consenting participants to determine their physical activity and exercise levels during the prior 7 days. Demographic data, body mass index, and reasons they were unable to exercise were also collected. Results: Sixty five family physicians participated in the study, 34 (52.3%) men and 31 (47.7%) women (mean age 34.8 ± 8.6 years). The average time spent on physical activity was 1–2 days per week, approximately 30 min per day. The average physically inactive time for all physicians was 9.3 ± 7.9 h per day, with 11 participants (16.9%) spending at least 12 h per day sitting. Among the perceived barriers to exercise and physical activity, insufficient time was the most common response (n = 37, 56.9%), followed by many responsibilities (n = 31, 47.7%). Unmarried family physicians spent more time engaged in vigorous physical activity (on average 1.9 ± 2.0 days per week, 53.6 ± 29.5 min per day) compared to married physicians (on average 0.8 ± 1.6 days per week, 32.9 ± 26.6 min per day). Conclusion: Many family medicine physicians do not engage in physical activity. Those who engage in physical activity spend approximately 30 min, 1–2 days per week, which is less than the World Health Organization guidelines for physical activity. Single physicians tend to exercise more than married physicians. Lack of time to exercise was the most common reason for physical inactivity. It is necessary to institute and incorporate physical activity sessions for family physicians, as well as educational and health programs promoting increased physical activity for a better and healthier society.
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Gait parameters, selected anthropometric variables, psychological status, and performance level among professional basketball players in Lagos p. 66
Ashiyat Kehinde Akodu, Emmanuela N Mbelu, Udoka Arinze C. Okafor
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_9_22  
Introduction: Even though basketball is a popular sport all over the world, there is a paucity of data on gait, mental status, and the level of performance of basketball players compared to other types of sport. Objectives: This study evaluated the correlation among gait parameters, selected anthropometric variables, psychological status, and performance level among professional basketball players. Materials and Methods: Fifty (25 males and 25 females) professional basketball players were enrolled for this cross-sectional analytical study, with a mean age of 17.16 ± 2.87 years from a Basketball court in Lagos state. Gait parameters, psychological status, performance level, and anthropometric variables were evaluated with footprint method, Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative, vertical jump height (HT) and tape measure. Data were analyzed using the Independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at a significant level of P < 0.05. Results: Significant correlation exist between gait parameters (stride length [STRL] [r = −0.306, P = 0.004], step length [STPL] [−0.272, P = 0.006], base of gait [BOG] [r = −0.169, P = 0.031]), and psychological status of female participants. Significant correlation exist between gait parameters and the anthropometric variables; Arm span: STRL (r = 0.527, P = 0.0001), STPL (r = 0.506, P = 0.0001), BOG (r = 0.302, P = 0.033), arm length: STRL (r = 0.539, P = 0.0001), STPL (0.529, P = 0.0001), hand span: STRL (r = 0.577, P = 0.0001), STPL (r = 0.448, P = 0.001), BOG (r = 0.281, P = 0.048) of the participants. Significant differences (P < 0.05) exist between the performance level Vertical Jump Test Standing HT (P = 0.001), Vertical Jump Test Jump HT (P = 0.0001), and BOG (P = 0.0001) of male and female participants. Conclusion: Gait parameters have a significant influence on psychological status and some selected anthropometric variables of female professional basketball players. There was a difference between the level of performance and BOG of male and female participants.
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Effects of concentric and eccentric exercises in the rehabilitation of flexible flat foot - A randomized trial p. 74
Hariharasudhan Ravichandran, Kshama Susheel Shetty, Samatha Ashok Shetty
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_7_22  
Background: Flexible flat feet are one of the common presentations in the lower limb, which may be associated with postural stability, pathologies, and injuries. There are intrinsic and extrinsic causes for flat feet. Strengthening of muscles supporting the medial arch is the major goal in rehabilitating individuals with flat feet. Both concentric and eccentric strengthening programs are implemented in the rehabilitation of flat feet. Objectives: The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of concentric and eccentric exercise programs on improving navicular drop in adults with pronated feet. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four participants, between the age group of 18 and 25 years, were screened for pronated feet. Fifty-four participants fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly assigned to either concentric (n = 27) or eccentric exercise group (n = 28). Both the groups performed their assigned exercise programs, either concentric or eccentric tibialis posterior strengthening exercises, respectively, for a duration of 6 weeks. Navicular drop test outcomes were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Results: The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20.0 version. Within-group analysis was performed using paired “t”-test, while between-group analysis performed using independent “t”-test. Postinterventional outcome was similar in both groups, and concentric group had significant outcomes (P = 0.006) in weight-bearing navicular drop test compared to eccentric group. There exists no statistical significance (P < 0.05) between the groups in improving medial longitudinal arch. Conclusion: Both concentric and eccentric exercises were equally effective in improving the medial longitudinal arch among participants with flexible flat foot. Future studies with long-term follow-up are recommended to validate the results of this study.
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A comparison of body composition and blood lipid indices among Kho-Kho players based on water intake pattern p. 82
Kommi Kalpana, Gulshan Lal Khanna, Ala Nagajyothi
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_12_22  
Purpose: Water intake and its likely association with body composition are under exploration in recent years. However, studies done on athletes are scarce in this direction. The present study aimed to understand the difference between body composition and blood lipid indices of Kho-Kho players based on water intake pattern. Methods: Forty-five male Kho-Kho players aged between 18 and 30 years attending a national camp were recruited for the study. The players were cross-sectionally divided into two groups: (1) low water consumption (LWC; <1 ml/kcal) and (2) adequate water consumption (AWC; >1.0 ml/kcal) based on the water consumption recommendations (IOM, 2005) and evaluated the differences in anthropometric measurements, body composition, total water, energy and nutrient intakes, and blood lipid indices between groups using the t-test. Results: We found a significant difference between LWC and AWC for total water intake (P < 0.01), body mass (P < 0.01), body fat % (P < 0.01), endomorphic somatotype (P < 0.01), girths (P < 0.01), serum triglycerides (P < 0.01), and very low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Lower water intake may increase body mass and fat, endomorphism, and blood lipid indices. Hence, AWC could be useful in the maintenance of ideal body composition, physique, and blood lipid indices in Kho-Kho players.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Post-COVID-19 death among athletes: Is interleukin-6 screening needed? p. 87
Amr Ahmed, Neveen Refaey, Aml M Brakat
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_10_22  
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