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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2021
Volume 21 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 35-74

Online since Monday, October 4, 2021

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OVERVIEW  

Guideline for re-establishing of physiotherapy services in hospital and rehabilitation center for general patient during COVID-19 outbreak p. 35
Sohel Ahmed, Rahemun Akter
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_16_21  
Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has altered the physiotherapy clinical practice globally. Lockdown and social distancing have limited the scope of physiotherapy practice. Hence, our aim was to provide a guideline regarding re-establishing of physiotherapy services during the outbreak. Various recent literatures, searched in the following databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, recommendations from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and different physiotherapy association's guidelines were included. This overview can consider as a unique example of physiotherapy practice guideline for hospital and rehabilitation service center.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Mechanism of hamstring strain injuries in sports: A narrative review p. 39
Haifa Saleh Al Mansoof, Moath Aabed Almusallam, Shibili Nuhmani
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_21_21  
Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is one of the most frequent injuries among athletes in several sports. The high rate of recurrence of this injury advocates that our current understanding of HSI and the risk of its recurrence is incomplete. HSIs are multifaceted and have numerous mechanisms. Having an insight into the injury mechanisms helps determine the severity of the injury, validate clinical practice, manage progress, and prevent occurrence and recurrence of injuries. Hamstring muscles are essential in generating force and controlling the body during running and sprinting activities. It is the force generator in propulsion, swinging leg decelerator, and shock-absorber when impacting the ground. The HIS mechanisms are several, but highlighting the important interaction between different parts (the core and extremities) and systems (the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal) of the body and the effect of having such interaction impaired. The HIS recurrence mechanisms highlight the impact of the residual and persistent risk factors and their ways to help the HIS to reoccur.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Injury rate among CrossFit participants and its associated risk factors in Riyadh: A cross-sectional study p. 45
Wassim A Aldebeyan, Bader Aljadaan, Abdullah Bin Dous, Mohammad Almashouq, Noura A Abouammoh, Abdulaziz Alsubaie, Abdulrahman Alshahrani, Hind Alghamdi, Muath Alsoliman
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_11_21  
Background: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity movements. This study assesses the rate and risk factors of CrossFit injuries. Materials and Methods: This is an analytical, cross-sectional study that was conducted in four CrossFit affiliates (two for males and two for females) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from CrossFit athletes between January and April 2018. Data collected were incidence, severity, number of injuries, and potential risk factors for injury in the preceding 6 months. Using the SPSS software, data were analyzed using the t-test, Chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among the 255 participants, 31.37% had an injury during the last 6 months' period. The incidence rate of injury was 3.33/1000 athlete hours. Participants who did not include cool down in their CrossFit workout were significantly more likely to be injured (41.58% vs. 24.68%, P = 0.004). Injured participants reported higher weekly athlete training hours (5.73 ± 3.89 vs. 4.55 ± 2.94, P = 0.008). Most of the participants' injuries were acute and required medical attention (51%). Conclusion: Injury rate among CrossFit athletes in Saudi Arabia is relatively high, especially among those who train regularly and those who do not incorporate cool-down in their CrossFit regimen. Cooling-down after CrossFit activities might help in reducing the rate of injury.
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Comparison of short-term training effects of two neuromuscular electrical stimulation modalities on muscle functions and mass p. 51
Abdulaziz Aldayel, Saad Khalid Aljaloud, Sulaiman O Aljaloud
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_15_21  
Purpose: The present study thus aimed to compare the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training, using alternating current (AC) and pulsed current (PC), on muscle function and muscle mass. Methods: Twenty-thee healthy male university students (age: 22.68 ± 3.7) were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups (AC = 12, PC = 11) to receive NMES training in both legs simultaneously. Each group underwent a 20-min NMES session using AC or PC, 2 days a week for 5 weeks. AC was delivered at 2.5 kHz (burst frequency: 75 Hz and pulse duration: 400 μs) for the knee extensors of both legs, and PC was delivered at 75 Hz (pulse duration: 400 μs), inducing 60 isometric contractions (on–off ratio: 5–15 s) at a knee joint angle of 100° (0° = full extension). Muscle strength, power, and mass were assessed 1 week before and 1 and 6 weeks after the training program. Results: Findings show a significant increase in vertical jump height after both NMES training, although no torque gain was detected regardless of the type of modality. A significant increase in the region fat-free mass (trained legs) in both NMES currents without a difference between them was observed in the function of the trained muscles. Conclusion: Short-term training (5 weeks) using AC or PC could be insufficient to detect an improvement in muscle functions such as torque gain. However, the short-term training using AC may improve physical performance and body composition.
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Impact of recreational games in enhancing the quality of life of elderly adult tribals p. 59
Manoj Kumar Murmu, Gopal Chandra Saha
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_17_21  
Background: Today, making use of recreation has bowed into a lifestyle. Individuals make use of various recreational activities in different areas and places. Recreation not only provides joy and pleasure but also improves physical, mental, and emotional health. It also helps in developing self-realization, social adjustment, social equality, and good citizenship. High level of association among the people in recreational activities is like taking a little break from every day which includes a lot of fun and vision, which can be an effective strategy to a sense of relaxation and stress reduction is experienced. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of recreational games on quality of life in elderly adult tribal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty elderly adult sedentary tribal women participants were selected using random sampling technique, aged between 50 to 55 years old. The experimental group (n = 20) was introduced to recreational games intervention program, for the period of 16 weeks, each session for a duration of approximately 45 min was given thrice in alternative days in a week. The quality of life was measured by a Standardized Life Satisfaction Scale developed by Hardeo Ojha and Self-efficacy Scale developed by A. K Singh and Shruti Narayan. Results: Quantitative data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance. After participation in the 16 weeks' recreational games intervention program, the experimental group presented significant improvement in life satisfaction from score 54.15 to 54.60 (C.D = 0.45, P < 0.05) and in self-efficacy from score 77.95 to score 78.40 (C.D = 0.45, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results revealed that engagement in recreational games has a significant impact on life satisfaction and self-efficacy of elderly adult tribal women. Sportive recreational games have rapidly enhanced the quality of life, for example, life satisfaction and self-efficacy of individuals in physical and mental health.
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RELATIONSHIP STUDY Top

Dynamic balance and selected anthropometric variables of volleyball players: A relationship study p. 64
Krishnendu Ghosh, Sudarsan Biswas, Kallol Chatterjee
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_13_21  
Background: Volleyball is one of the popular games in the world. The objectiv of the game is to cross the ball above the net to ground it to the opponent's court to win a rally, which demand heighted players with high qualities of aerobic and anaerobic efficiency along with other motor qualities such as speed, strength, endurance and Balance. Balance is one of the important fitness components to perform skill more successfully. Balance is the ability to maintain the body's center of gravity over the center of supporting base of the body. Aims: The Purpose of the study is to find out the relationship between dynamic balance and selected anthropometric variables of volleyball players. Settings and Design: Purposive Design was used Methods and Material: Total 15 male district level volleyball players were selected as subjects for this study from Bolpur, Birbhum, West Bengal. Dynamic balance, height, weight and BMI ware considered as the variables of the study. The age of the subject was 18-24 years. Statistical analysis used: Descriptive Statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation of coefficient were used. To calculate the collected data social science statistics (Online software) was used. Results: The result shows that negative relation was found between dynamic balance and height, dynamic balance and weight , dynamic balance and BMI. Conclusions: Inverse relationship was found between height, weight,BMI with Dynamic balance of district level male Volleyball players.
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CASE REPORT Top

Posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture in skeletally immature patient p. 69
Mohammad Ali Karbouji, Talal J Alamri, Ashjan Saleh Akram, Alaa Sobhy Shams, Abdulmuhsen N Alshammari
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_8_21  
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures occurred less frequently in children than in adults. A low threshold of suspicion is required to avoid delaying or even missing the diagnosis due to the rare presentation of these cases. This report represents a rare case of a skeletally immature patient with PCL avulsion fracture from tibial attachment, which was treated surgically. Along with a case report, we also provide a review of other studies.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Urination in the pools: A common practice of swimmers p. 73
Muhammad Shahidul Islam
DOI:10.4103/sjsm.sjsm_12_21  
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