|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 17-21
Association of rural collegiate 800 m athletes' running time with their cardiorespiratory endurance, power, and F30 time
Neeraj Kumar1, Anand N Badwe2
1 Department of Orthopaedic Physiotherapy, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam College of Physiotherapy, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Physiology, Dr. Balasaheb Vikhe Patil Rural Medical College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||11-Apr-2023|
|Date of Decision||09-May-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||16-May-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||07-Aug-2023|
Department of Orthopaedic Physiotherapy, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam College of Physiotherapy, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Loni, Rahata, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Middle distance running is a track and field sport and 800 meter running is one of it. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 800 meter running time with BMI, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power and F30 time.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 volunteer rural collegiate athletes were randomly participated in this study.
Results: Their mean age (in years), weight (in kg), height (in cm), BMI (kg/m2), Cardiorespiratory endurance or VO2 max (ml/kg/min), anaerobic power (watt), F30 time (sec) and 800 meter running time (m.s) were 19.35 (±1.37), 61.92 (±9.94), 171.12 (±5.91), 21.13 (±3.15), 35.83 (±4.05), 334.17, (±114.87), 5.44 (±0.26), 3.43 (±0.23) respectively. The Pearson correlation test was applied between 800 meter running time with BMI, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power and F30 time and its P value was -0.01, 0.06, -0.20, -0.07 respectively.
Conclusion: The finding of the present study suggests that 800 meter running time of these athletes are correlated with only BMI and not correlated with VO2 max, anaerobic power and F30 time.
Keywords: 800 m running, anaerobic power, body mass index, F30, VO2 max
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar N, Badwe AN. Association of rural collegiate 800 m athletes' running time with their cardiorespiratory endurance, power, and F30 time. Saudi J Sports Med 2023;23:17-21
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar N, Badwe AN. Association of rural collegiate 800 m athletes' running time with their cardiorespiratory endurance, power, and F30 time. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Sep 22];23:17-21. Available from: https://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2023/23/1/17/383099
| Introduction|| |
Once Mahatma Gandhi said “India lives in village.", Rural infrastructures in India still have a long way to go, and rural people face numerous obstacles on a daily basis. They have difficulties in obtaining basic health, education, and sports opportunities. In rural India, there are numerous government and private educational institutions, the majority of which have a considerable number of students. May of these rural institutions are having the basic sports facilities and there are many students who participates in various sports events. Although many rural colleges have a fully functional sports department and personnel, there is a huge gap which has to be filled in order to maintain and improve the fitness and performances of rural collegiate athletes., In contrast to urban collegiate athletes, the rural collegiate athletes have some different kinds of challenges too. The rural population of India is heavily reliant on agriculture as their primary source of income, and nearly every family in a village is active in agriculture8, therefore collegiate students or athletes must be involved in agriculture as well. Due to the increased workload, rural collegiate players find it difficult to devote enough time to sports training, practise, and workouts. In addition to this obstacle, parents are wary of sports as a professional option for their children and do not always encourage them to participate in sports., This scenario is now improving but still requires more emphasis. Furthermore, the limited number of skilled sports professionals in rural settings, such as trainers, coaches, and physiotherapists, plays an important role in the obstacles experienced by rural collegiate athletes. Advanced training and exercise equipment, as well as research equipment, are major areas for improvement in rural settings., In order to compete and perform successfully on a larger platform, these rural collegiate athletes require more precise and advanced training equipment, as well as highly experienced and trained specialists. There are a few athletes of national and international renown who dope, which can lead to rural players doing the same if they do not have sufficient training and facilities, which is unlawful and outlawed, and can ultimately destroy such athletes physically, mentally, and socially. There is a need to carry out some good research work on these athletes as there is a paucity of such researches on rural collegiate athletes.
Many rural collegiate athletes, in lack of proper guidance, are unaware about their fitness and performances and how and where to improve it. The aerobic capacity is being measured by VO2 max (maximum voluntary consumption of oxygen) which is also termed as cardio-respiratory endurance.,The anaerobic power is determined by various strength test in which RAST (Running based anaerobic sprint test) is one. It is crucial to determine how aerobic and anaerobic ability relate to various factors in rural collegiate athletes since these capacities play a significant impact in 800 meter athletic performances. Thus, we conducted this study to determine the correlation of 800 m running time with body mass index (BMI), aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and F30 time in rural collegiate 800 m athletes. This study helps rural sports professionals to plan for the improvement of athletic performances accordingly.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A total of 100 healthy voluntary collegiate 800 metre athletes aged 18 to 25 years from various institutions in Rahata Talluka, Ahmednagar district, were chosen at random based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The participants with any recent injury and any medical and/or psychological conditions which may affect their performances were excluded from this study. The minimum eligibility of participants was to qualify physical activity readiness questionnaire and they all submitted their written informed consent. The ethical committee approval (PIMS/IEC-DR/2020/135) was taken from the Institutional Ethical Committee of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Loni.
The following variables were taken:
Height (cm) measured by a stadiometer; and weight (kg) measured by a digital weighing machine.
- VO2 max (beep test): This test involved continuous running between two lines 20 m apart in time to recorded beeps. The test subjects stood behind one of the lines facing the second line and began running when instructed by the tape. The speed at the start was quite slow. The subject continued running between the two lines, turning when signaled by the recorded beeps. After 1 min, a sound beep indicated an increase in speed, and the beeps were closer together. This was continued for each minute (level). If the line was not reached in time for each beep, the subject must rerun to the line turn and try to complete the task within 2 more “beeps.” Also, if the line is reached before the beep sounds, the subject must wait until the beep sounds. The test was stopped if the subject failed to reach the line (within 2 m) for two consecutive ends. The athletes score was considered as the level and number of shuttles (20 m) reached before they were unable to keep up with the recording. This score was converted to a VO2 max equivalent score using mobile app (Beep test v 4.17, offered by Ruval enterprises, Canada)
- Anaerobic power (running based anaerobic sprint test): Initially, body mass of each participant measured with the same clothes to be used in the running based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) test. Two lines taped to the floor marked a sprinting trace of 35 m and cones placed at the end of each of the line. Participants were instructed to complete six 35-m sprints at maximum pace and to be sure to cross each line. Participants verbally encouraged to run as fast as possible during each run to ensure a maximal effort. Between each run, participants were allowed to rest for 10 s before turning around, in order to allow them to prepare for the subsequent sprint. Each 10-s interval between the sprints has also been timed manually. For the first sprint, the instruction was “ready, 3, 2, 1, go.” For the other five sprints, a countdown from 6 to 1 and the start signal “go” proved to be sufficient. Power, expressed in watts (W), and be calculated by the formula power = (Body Mass/*Distance2)/Time.
- F30 sprint test: This test assessed the sprinting ability over a short distance, which is of particular importance for many sports and has been associated with the performance of different activities. F30 was performed on a straight track marked with cones and lines at 30 and 60 m after the starting point. The participants waited for the signal at the starting point and then ran at maximum speed. Participants performed two trials separated by 5 min and the best time has been used in the analysis
- 800 m running time: After a warm-up of self-selected velocity and 5 min of rest, participants were asked to perform 800 m run in a minimal time possible.
Descriptive statistics were done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Mean and standard deviation were used to prepare summary statistics. Pearson's correlation test was applied to find the relation between variables.
| Results|| |
A total of 100 rural collegiate 800 m athletes participated in this study. The average age (years), weight (kg), height (cm), BMI (kg/m2), VO2 max (mL/kg/min), anaerobic power (watt), F30 time (s), and 800 m running time (ms) of all participants are shown in [Table 1].
The Pearson's correlation test was applied between 800 m running time with BMI, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and F30 time and its P value is shown in [Table 2].
| Discussion|| |
The aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are considered as good parameter for performing sports which requires endurance, strength, and power. Many rural college athletes compete in sports including sprinting, wrestling, and kabaddi. Middle distance running requires for both strength and endurance, and many rural athletes compete in it, especially in the 800 meter race. This study aims to determine how the 800 meter running time in rural collegiate 800 meter athletes relates to BMI, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and F30 time. A total 100 rural collegiate 800 m athletes randomly participated in this study. Their average age was 19.35 years. Average 800 m running time of all participants was 3.43 min which is well below the national and international records., There may be certain factors for this low level performance which need to be further studied.
The average BMI of all participants was 21.13 m/kg2, which is considered as normal. The Pearson's correlation between 800 m running time and BMI was − 0.01, which is statistically significant inversely. This finding suggests that BMI shall be maintained in order to perform better in 800 m running. This finding is supported by Sedeaud et al., which suggested that middle distance running time is related with BMI. In another study, O'Connor et al. found that athletes who are overweight are not having good time in middle distance running.
The average VO2 max of all participants was 35.83 mL/kg/min, which is below than standard.,, There could be numerous issues that need to be researched in the future. The aerobic capacity of these athletes is required to be improved by proper aerobic training. Pearson's correlation was applied between 800 m running time and VO2 max among these participants and P = 0.06, which is statistically insignificant. This finding suggests that VO2 max have not any relation with 800 m running time. Since the 800 m running time and VO2 max of all participants are not meeting standard values, it is difficult to justify the finding of this study that they are not related with each other. In a study conducted by Støren et al., the middle distance running time is related with athletes' aerobic capacity, which is in contrast with the finding of the present study.
The anaerobic power of all athletes was measured using RAST. The average anaerobic power was 331.49 watt, which is well below standard values., The anaerobic power is required to be improved with the help of well-guided strength training program. Pearson's correlation was applied between 800 m running time and anaerobic power and their P = −0.20 which is statistically insignificant. It should also be highlighted that these athletes' typical values for 800 meter running time and anaerobic power are below average, thus this correlation finding cannot be justified. In contrast to the results of the current study, Støren et al. (2021) claimed that anaerobic power is an important factor for middle distance running and that there is a correlation between the two.
The average F30 time of all participants was 5.44 s and its Pearson's correlation value with 800 m running time was −0.07, which is statistically insignificant. Here also, it is difficult to justify this finding as the 800 m running time is below standard. In a study conducted by Haugen et al., it was suggested that shorter distance running training particularly 30 m and 60 m is effective in middle distance running.
Since the rural collegiate athletes are facing challenges in training due to limited training facility and limited opportunity for participation in various platforms, they need to be provided with ample support. If we want more medals for our country in international events, we need to focus on rural athletes also. If they trained well, they also can perform better.
| Conclusion|| |
The finding of the present study suggests that the 800 m running time, VO2 max, and anaerobic power of rural collegiate 800 m athlete are below normal and need to be improved. The finding also suggests that 800 m running time of these athletes is correlated with only BMI and not correlated with VO2 max, anaerobic power, and F30 time. Since their average values are below than national and international standard, it is not to be justifiable and advisable to conclude that 800 m running time is not correlated with aerobic capacity and anaerobic power. A further guided training program for these athletes needs to be framed and implemented to improve their performances and then again a correlation study shall be done.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Garg BS. Village first: Community empowerment on health & development based on gandhian approach – An experience of working in few villages of Wardha District, Maharashtra. Indian J Med Res 2019;149:S63-7.
Jodhka SS. Nation and village: Images of rural India in Gandhi, Nehru and Ambedkar. Econ Polit Wkly 2002;37:3343-53.
Mohan P, Kumar R. Strengthening primary care in rural India: Lessons from Indian and global evidence and experience. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:2169-72.
] [Full text]
Rajan S. Academic problems encountered by rural students. Int J Educ 2019;7:15-9.
Ghosh A, Mondal P, Das SS. Development of sports and sports facilities in India. Int J Res Pedagogy Technol Educ Mov Sci 2013;4:11-23.
Karkhur N, Kumar S. Relationship of sports achievement with sports infrastructural facilities and sports personnel' of government and private schools. Int J Physiol Nutr Phys Educ 2021;6:214-6.
William RR, Kirubakar SG. Sports infrastructure in India. Int J Phys Nutr Physical Educ 2019;SP1:42-6.
Annual report 2020-21. Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers' Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare. Government of India.
Khasnis U, Chapman P, Toering T, Collins D. Focus on the people: key stakeholders' perceptions of elite sport in India and its potential for development. Managing Sport and Leisure 2021.
Khatri K. Why sports is not a career option. Int J Recent Sci Res 2020;11:38799-804.
Satija A, Khandpur N, Satija S, Mathur Gaiha S, Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS, et al.
Physical activity among adolescents in India: A qualitative study of barriers and enablers. Health Educ Behav 2018;45:926-34.
Kumar N, Sharma S. Effect of tobacco chewing on VO2 max. Med Sportiva 2011;7:1680-4.
Kumar N, Goswami S. Comparison of Rockport one-mile walk test and McArdle step test for prediction of VO2 max. Saudi J Sports Med 2019;19:82-5. [Full text]
Kumar N, Laroiya N. Association of VO2 max, agility and BMI among collegiate athletes. Ann Sports Med Res 2017;4:1121.
Blumkaitis JC, Sandefur CL, Fahs CA, Rossow LM. Anaerobic and aerobic contributions to 800 m and 8 km season bests. J Trainol 2016;5:28-42.
James WP, Chunming C, Inoue S. Appropriate Asian body mass indices? Obes Rev 2002;3:139.
Sedeaud A, Marc A, Marck A, Dor F, Schipman J, Dorsey M, et al.
BMI, a performance parameter for speed improvement. PLoS One 2014;9:e90183.
O'Connor H, Olds T, Maughan RJ, International Association of Athletics Federations. Physique and performance for track and field events. J Sports Sci 2007;25 Suppl 1:S49-60.
Buttar KK, Kacker S, Saboo N. Normative data of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) among healthy young adults: A cross-sectional study. J Clin Diagn Res 2022;16:CC31-4.
Nitin YM, Sucharita S, Madhura M, Thomas T, Sandhya TA. VO2 max in an Indian population: A study to understand the role of factors determining VO2 max. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2013;57:87-94.
Støren Ø, Helgerud J, Johansen JM, Gjerløw LE, Aamlid A, Støa EM. Aerobic and anaerobic speed predicts 800-m running performance in young recreational runners. Front Physiol 2021;12:672141.
Abichandani D, Hule V. Assessment of anaerobic power and balance among elite Indian under-19 football players. Int J Sci Res 2017;6:521-7.
Zupan MF, Arata AW, Dawson LH, Wile AL, Payn TL, Hannon ME. Wingate anaerobic test peak power and anaerobic capacity classifications for men and women intercollegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2009;23:2598-604.
Haugen T, Sandbakk Ø, Enoksen E, Seiler S, Tønnessen E. Crossing the golden training divide: The science and practice of training world class 800 and 1500 meter runners. Sports Med 2021;51:1835-54.
[Table 1], [Table 2]