|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 7-13
Obesity degrees and their relationships with weakness of musculoskeletal system among the obese housewife
Department of Sports Training, Physical Education Institute Laboratory OPAPS, University of Mostaganem, Mostaganem 27000, Algeria
|Date of Web Publication||3-Jan-2017|
Dr. Mohammed Zerf
Department of Sports Training, Physical Education Institute Laboratory OPAPS, University of Mostaganem, Mostaganem 27000
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Obesity is associated with a range of disabling musculoskeletal conditions in adults. Objective: Our aimed in this study was to examine the correlation between Obesity degrees and weakness musculoskeletal system in class obese I, II, and III housewife. Methods: For the propose, our sample was selected by intentional method represented in 30 women, their homogeneity was calculate based on the age sex and questionnaire PA-R, tested Based on the index Ruffier-Dickson, body shape (ABSI), the body mass (BMI) as medical test and the vertical jump as field test to estimate the impact of Obesity degrees on weakness musculoskeletal system. Results: Thus, the analyses statistics we confirm: (a) Class obese level predicts the weakness of musculoskeletal system in class obese, which is related to the overweight level and high heartbeat during the effort. (b) There is a strong positive relationship between the increase body fat, the level of the index Ruffier-Dickson and the relative risks ABSI & BMI, in the opposite of the jumping -power which confirms in one hand the health risk based on the values anaerobic power and the weakness of musculoskeletal system based on the level of the values power leg. Conclusion: Obesity degrees predicts the weakness of musculoskeletal.
درجة البدانة وعلاقتها بضعف النظام العضلي الهيكلي في ربات المنازل البدينات
خلفية البحث: أن البدانة لها علاقة مع العديد من حالات إعاقات الجهاز العضلي في البالغين
الهدف: اختبار المعامل بين درجة البدانة وضعف الجهاز العضلي الهيكلي في الفئات I ,II, III من ربات البيوت.
طريقة البحث: تم اختيار 30 أمرأه بالطريقة الدولية وتم حساب تجانسهن على أساس العمر الجنس و الاختبارPA-R , الذي بني على معامل روفير- ديكسون, شكل الجسم (ABSI), كتلة الجسم (BMI) كاختبار طبي والقفز الرأسي لتقييم أثر درجة البدانة على ضعف الجهاز العضلي الهيكلي.
النتيجة: أكدت نتيجة التحليل الاحصائي أن: أولا: معدل البدانة ينبئ بغضف النظام العضلي الهيكلي في البدناء، والذي يتعلق بمعدل زيادة الوزن وارتفاع نبضات القلب اثناء الجهد. وثانيا: كما أن هناك علاقة موجبة زائدة بين زيادة دهون الجسم، معدل روفير-ديكسون ة وزيادة مخاطر ABSI و BMSI , في المقابل القفز- الطاقة والتي تؤكد من جهة المخاطر الصحية بناء على قيم الطاقة اللاهوائية وضعف النظام العضلي الهيكلي بناء على قيم قوة القدم. الخلاصة: معدلات البدانة تنبئ بضعف النظام العضلي الهيكلي.
Keywords: Class obese I, II, III housewife, heart health risk, the degree of obesity, weakness of musculoskeletal system
|How to cite this article:|
Zerf M. Obesity degrees and their relationships with weakness of musculoskeletal system among the obese housewife. Saudi J Sports Med 2017;17:7-13
|How to cite this URL:|
Zerf M. Obesity degrees and their relationships with weakness of musculoskeletal system among the obese housewife. Saudi J Sports Med [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Sep 25];17:7-13. Available from: https://www.sjosm.org/text.asp?2017/17/1/7/197458
| Introduction|| |
Obesity is a medically determinable impairment that is often associated with disturbance of the musculoskeletal system, which is a very important factor related with the decline in physical function, where these symptoms lead to frailty and complications in health deterioration, whereas the similar studies describe it as one of the most important risk factors nowadays that have become the main public health problem in the 21st century. While the meaning of obesity is as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that may impair health. Where the World Health Organization indicate that any individual with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 is obese. Whereas Kazaks and Stern explain it in overweight and obesity ranges calculate by BMI. Where the adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. According to the study by Robinson and Sprayberry, which they confirm that this syndrome is characterized by a normal body weight and BMI but a high fat mass (>30%) who represents a risk factor as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We agreed the review of Gillman and Poston that obese women have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in later life, and the report of the health professionals confirms that overweight conduct to serious health risks for adults. Based on these view and the data from the nurses' health study that obese women have 2.7 times risk of infertility compared with women of normal weight according to Merrill, we agreed the indications of Tiwari, That housewives must understand their bodies and learn to balance their lifestyle inactive by the practice of physical exercises where Cavill et al. considered the fewer household activities as physical inactivity which contributes substantially to the global burden of disease proof affirmed by Barton et al., which confirm that obesity diseases is related to lifestyle in particularly cardiovascular disorders. Whereas Ahima confirms that typically BMI is considered a leading cause of premature death among the obese. Where Instaread (2015) confirms that a body shape index (ABSI) has become the new method for determining the health effects of body fat. From these background, our interest in this modest study come to examine the hypothesis that lifestyle can influence health risk and weakness musculoskeletal system. Based on the affirmation Shah and Arnett study, whose confirm that it has long been recognized that certain lifestyle chosen by woman come a great risk in the near future. Our choice to treat this subject comes from the confirmation Saker et al. that Obesity has become a common phenomenon in Algerian society. Our purpose of this study was to tested in one hand, the hypothesis that obese subjects may have a higher cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and minute ventilation at a given work rate due to body movement restrictions, joint pain, muscle weakness, or balance problems. On the other hand, the discussion of the second, which support that the degree of obesity has positive relationships with the relative level heart health risk and weakness musculoskeletal system in the opposite of the work adjustment among the obese housewife. Based on the similar studies where the exercise is most prevention treatment to health conditions,, we agreed that women active can maintain good health. Where the American Heart Association recommends confirms that a regular aerobic exercise has been recognized as an important factor in the prevention and control of obesity. From the proves our aims are to determine the correlates of health risk cardiovascular in class obese and their relationships with weakness musculoskeletal. Where our background confirms that there is a strong association between BMI and excess of obesity. Whereas Urden et al. indicted that a high risk of coronary heart disease is associated with excess weight where Hall confirms that obesity is associated with disturbance of the musculoskeletal system, which can be a major cause of disability in individuals' obesity.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Our assessments tested was basing on:
Physical activity rating
This questionnaire tool is for categorizing a person's level of physical activity. It is used in the equations for the nonexercise fitness test. Your physical activity rating (PA-R) score is between 0 and 7.
Select the number that best describes your overall level of physical activity for the previous 6 months: 0 points avoids walking or exercise (for example, always uses elevators, drives whenever possible instead of walking); 2 points 10-60 min/week; 3 points over 1 h/week; 4 points runs <1 mile/week or spends <30 min/week in comparable physical activity; 5 points runs 1-5 miles/week or spends 30-60 min/week in comparable physical activity; 6 points runs 5-10 miles/week or spends 1-3 h/week in comparable physical activity; 7 points runs more than 10 miles/week or spends more than 3 h/week in comparable physical activity.
Body mass index classification system for adults
The most common method of measuring obesity is the BMI. BMI is calculated by dividing body weight (kilograms) by height (meters) squared. An adult BMI of between 25 and 29.9 is classified as overweight, and a BMI of 30 or over is classified as obese [Table 1].
|Table 1: World Health Organization body mass index classification system for adults|
Click here to view
To calculate BMI = weight (kg)/height (m) or weight (Ib) height (in) 1 × 704.5.
BMI body weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of height (in meters), expressed in units of kg/m. Also called quetelet index.,
ABSI was calculated according to Krakauer and Krakauer and the following formula:
ABSI = WC (m)/(BMI2/3 × height1/2 (m)).
The ruffier functional dickson index test
The efficiency of cardiovascular system is possible to evaluate optimally (beside a detection and assessment of the heart rate zones) by making the use of the functional tests. One of them is the Ruffier test, which in a simple way and with sufficient rate of reliability sets the functional state of the cardiovascular system and readiness of organism for load. The Ruffier functional test consists of three parts.
In the first part, after the 5 min relax, we conduct the measuring of the heart rate in the sitting position (we measure for 10 s and multiply by 6, or for 15 s and multiply by 4).
In the second part, we do 30 squats in 45 s and immediately measure the heart rate (HR), similarly as in part one.
The last part of the test is again calming down in the sitting position for 1 min and consecutive measuring of HR.
The index value is calculated from formula:
Resistive index = ([S1 + S2 + S3]−200)/10 Almansba R, Sterkowiczc, et al. (2010).
The evaluation levels of the Ruffier test till 3, 0-excellent functional condition, 3, 1-7, 0-good functional condition, 7, 1-12-Average functional condition, 12, 1-15, 0-pour functional condition, Over 15, 1-very poor functional condition.
Vertical jump test
The Sargent Jump Test (Sargent 1921), also known as the vertical jump test, was developed by Dr. Dudley Allen Sargent (1849-1924).
The player from a static position jumped as high as possible and marked the wall. The therapist measured and recorded the distance between M1 and M2. The player repeated the test 3 times. The therapist recorded the best of the three distances and used this value to assess the player's performance.
Power peak (W) = (78.6 · VJ (cm)) + (60.3 · BM (kg)) − (15.3 · ht (cm)) −1308
Powering (W) = (43.8 * VJ (cm)) + (32.7 * BM (5 kg)) − (16.8 * ht (cm)) +431
VJ = Vertical Jump; BM = Body mass (weight); ht = height.
For the conditions, we are focused on:
- The same marital lifestyle education social status
- Does not participate in regularly programed sport
- Their BMI is subclassifications obese Class I, II, and III
- In good health based on diagnostic of them doctors
- The same level PA-R.
Our sample was selected by intentional method represented in 30 women, their homogeneity was calculate based on the age sex and questionnaire PA-R ≤1, 10 [Table 2].
Based on the data tests and the data analysis procedures used in this study consisted of the computation of the means, standard deviations, the ANOVA and least significant difference (LSD), and correlation paired samples. We have chosen the descriptive statistics where we have calculated the conditions chosen for this experience. With a signifi cance level was set at 0.05. Statistical procedures were done using IBM SPSS 21.0.
| Results|| |
Thought the [Table 3] and [Table 4], our sample is overweight or "obese" Class I, II, and III based on their BMI according to Ross and Summerfield. Vis-à-vis the health risk cardiovascular, our results shows that Class I is well-placed compared to other class in all the compare variables at the 0.05 level from that we referee in one hand to the index Ruffier-Dickson which is in the benefit of Class I at the level P < 0.05 with significant rate index insufficient adapted to stress in the opposite of Class II and III, Which they are poor adapted to effort according to Ledrappier in other the ABSI and the BMI are in the benefit of Class I in all the comparison LSD P < 0.05 which we confirm our hypothesis that classification of overweight and obesity by BMI and waist circumference determine the excess body fat, where these results are correlate with the vertical jump which is a basic measure of anaerobic power according to Magee et al., and the leg power in adults based on the confirmation of Ehrman our results line with the view of Turley and Thompson which they confirm that overweight is associated with increased health risks as the type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and heart as health risk from the proof, we calculate the Pearson's correlations to determine the degree of obesity and their relationships with heart health risk and weakness musculoskeletal system [Table 5].
|Table 3: Expose the characteristics of parameters variables chosen to study|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Expose multiple comparisons least significant difference between the variables chosen to study|
Click here to view
|Table 5: The Pearson correlations relative health risk and the weakness of musculoskeletal system|
Click here to view
Through the [Table 5] our finds confirm:
- There is a strong positive relationship between the BMI, level index Ruffier-Dickson, and ABSI Rate relative to the inability and failure health risk
- Our sample risk higher inability and failure cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and minute ventilation at a given work rate where Porcari et al., explain this physiological phenomenon in attributable to the ratio of alveolar ventilation (VA) over cardiac output (Q) or ventilation/perfusion ratio (VA/Q) is increased. Whereas Sagiv explained it in the relationship volume ratio and minute ventilation which is typically inordinately high for the work rate from the proof, we judge the status of our participants that it's not adapted to stress were these results are correlated with level of Ruffier-Dickson and poor level vertical jump
- The overweight is over risk heart health risk where Gamble. Attributed to the low physical fitness as low levels of habitual physical activity according to Thygerson et al. Where these results are correlated with the weakness musculoskeletal system of our sample in efforts tests (Ruffier-Dickson, vertical jump) due to less the anaerobic glycolysis as primary energy source,, Where Sullivan and Pomidor explains the problem in the combined between skeletal muscle and cardiorespiratory limiting functional
- The failure of the sample in the effort test return to heart efficiency and low skeletal muscle mass according to Yarbro et al. Where our finding is correlated with the findings of Caroline that classification of obesity may be indirectly influenced by decrease in maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2 max).
| Discussion|| |
From the approval, we confirm the class obesity has higher lung volumes according to Rabe et al. and Moore et al., and the increased minute ventilation according to El-Solh due to a lower respiratory rate and the cardiovascular which are considered as a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, where Kanosue et al. recommended aerobic exercise to prevent the risk of obesity related to lifestyle obese according to Cifu Whether our data analyses line with confirmation Das that there are differences between energy expenditure and maximal oxygen consumption VO2 max and energy intake explained by Bradley et al., as problems respiratory function in the obese. From that we confirm the problems of our sample consisted in the ventilatory response and anaerobic threshold during the physical effort. Based on the approve, we referred to the findings of Donner et al. that women experience improved health-related physical fitness through exercise physical as well that exercise also promotes decreases in body weight and fat stores thing confirmed by Loue et al., on this basis our sample, they must understand that physical activity is a key factor for improving health throughout life.,
Where our finding confirms:
- The overall body physiological capacity reflects the heart failure and low skeletal muscle mass relative the inability and failure aerobic fitness as risk rate work in obese person
- The physical inactivity contributes to the heart failure and low skeletal muscle mass due to weight gain who becomes a resistance. Furthermore,, which increases the requirements of the higher cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and minute ventilation at a given work rate
- The class obese reflects the both risk physiological functions (cardiorespiratory power) where the level heart and skeletal muscle mass in our case predict the adaptations of our samples to physical effort as them levels in Ruffier-Dickson index and explosive force
- The health risk in our sample return to the contrast between inspiration and expiration in exercising where the level of aerobic functioning component provides a better correlation between tasks lifestyle and the level of fitness and wellness
- The level cardiorespiratory fitness reflects the integrative ability of the components of the cardiopulmonary system (i.e., heart, lungs, and blood system) to deliver oxygen to the metabolically active skeletal muscles which provides a better reflection about the status healthy lifestyle housewife. Whereas the ability of the body to do work is anaerobic system performance which can be reflected in measurements of anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity to predict a healthy lifestyle.
| Conclusion|| |
Our concluded lead us to obese levels which confirmed the finding of Wilmott et al. that obesity is responsible for stiffening of the respiratory system, due to decreased lung compliance. Which lead to disease conditions, increasing the depth of each breath and increases respiratory rate. Whereas Pate et al. confirm that cardiorespiratory fitness and BMI as predictors of cardiovascular disease mortality are risk factors in adulthood where Kopelman et al. explain it in levels physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness as determinants of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality from the proofs, we agreed the confirmation of Sothern. That regular physical activity as walking is shown to lessen the burden of obesity-related comorbidities, including reductions in blood. Whereas overweight and obese individuals are more likely to be sedentary and have lower aerobic fitness levels than nonoverweight persons according to Gaesser whereas Huotari confirms that overweight and obese individuals are associated with the decrease in aerobic fitness. Based on the limit of our experience in this topic, we agreed the recommendation of Pucher et al., that the aerobic fitness, and cardiovascular health protect obese person from various diseases. In other a fourth major complication of obesity is the effect of excessive weight on the body's musculoskeletal system where the lack of physical activity conducted to cardiovascular disease whereas the regular aerobic exercise prevents the cardiovascular fitness and enable the aerobically adaptations of skeletal muscle to the effort.
Through the above, it is interesting to note that as positively perceived that women who participate in physical activity moderates are confident and have a higher level of self-esteem, perform better leadership qualities and possess a healthy lifestyle. From that we agreed the finding of Rahman et al., that an active lifestyle can help and eliminate the health risk factors based on that we agreed the advice of Antonetti that our women must should have a medical assessment and physical fitness program.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Manusov EG. Low Back Pain, an Issue of Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice. Vol. 39. US: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012. p. 45.
Davison KK, Ford ES, Cogswell ME, Dietz WH. Percentage of body fat and body mass index are associated with mobility limitations in people aged 70 and older from NHANES III. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:1802-9.
Villareal DT, Banks M, Siener C, Sinacore DR, Klein S. Physical frailty and body composition in obese elderly men and women. Obes Res 2004;12:913-20.
Truglio-Londrigan M, Lewenson SB. Public Health Nursing. US: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2012. p. 316.
Agrawal S. Obesity, Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: A Practical Guide. UK: Springer Shop; 2015. p. 8.
Kazaks A, Stern JS. Nutrition and Obesity. US: Jones and Bartett Learning; 2012. p. 26.
Robinson NE, Sprayberry KA. Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. USA: Elsevier Health Science; 2009. p. 59.
Gillman MW, Poston L. Maternal Obesity. UK: Cambridge University Press; 2012.
Gudorf CE. Comparative Religious Ethics: Everyday Decisions for Our Everyday Lives. US: Fortress Press; 2013. p. 88.
Merrill RM. Reproductive Epidemiology Principles and Methods. USA: Jones and Bratlett Publishers; 2010.
Tiwari PG. Body Goddess: The Complete Guide on Yoga for Women. India: Random House India; 2015.
Cavill N, Kahlmeier S, Racioppi F. Physical Activity and Health in Europe. Europe: World Health Organization; 2006. p. 2.
Barton H, Thompson S, Burgess S, Grant M. The Routledge Handbook of Planning for Health and Well-Being. UK: Routledge; 2015.
Ahima RS. Obesity Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment. UK: CRC Press; 2014. p. 1.
David Zinczenko. Zero Belly Diet. Key Takeaways & Analysis, US: Worldwide, 2015, p. 5. Instaread,
McCormack Brown K, Thomas DQ, Koteck JE. Physical Activity and Health: An Interactive Approach. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2002.
Shah SS, Arnett DK. Cardiovascular Genetics and Genomics in Clinical Practice. UK: Springer Publishing Company; 2014.
Saker M, Merzouk H, Merzouk SA, Ahmed SB, Narce M. Predictive factors of obesity and their relationships to dietary intake in schoolchildren in Western Algeria. Maedica (Buchar) 2011;6:90-9.
Gormley J, Hussey J. Exercise Therapy: Prevention and Treatment of Disease. UK: Blackwell; 2009.
Alabbad MA, Muaidi QI. Incidence and prevalence of weight lifting injuries: An update. Saudi J Sports Med 2016;16:15-9.
Hardman AE, Stensel DJ. Physical Activity and Health: The Evidence Explained. US: Taylor & Francis; 2009. p. 1.
Etaugh C, Bridges JS. Women′s Lives: A Psychological Exploration. USA: Psychology Press; 2015. p. 303.
Grotta JC, Albers GW, Broderick JP, Kasner SE, Lo EH, Mendelow AD, et al
. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015. p. 26.
Watson RR. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity. USA: Access Online Via Elsevier; 2014. p. 59.
Berman A, Snyder SJ, Kozier B, Erb GL, Levett-Jones T, Dwyer T, et al
. Kozier & Erb′s Fundamentals of Nursing Australian Edition. Australia: Pearson Australia; 2014. p. 1342.
Urden LD, Stacy KM, Lough ME. Priorities in Critical Care Nursing. US: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015. p. 178.
Hall CT. West′s Social Security Disability Practice. US: West Publishing Company; 2010. p. 395.
Jackson AW. Physical Activity for Health and Fitness Lab Manual. USA: Human Kinetics; 2010. p. 17.
Agrawal S. Obesity, Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery: A Practical Guide. UK: Springer Shop; 2015. p. 4.
Insel PM, Turner RE, Ross D. Nutrition. Vol. 1. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2004. p. 324.
Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD. Creasy and Resnik′s Maternal-Fetal Medicine. UK: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. p. 132.
Krakauer NY, Krakauer JC. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index. PLoS One 2012;7:e39504.
Malara M, Keska A, Tkaczyk J, Lutoslawska G. Body shape index versus body mass index as correlates of health risk in young healthy sedentary men. J Transl Med 2015;13:75.
Shephard RJ. An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness, from Pre-History to Our Post. UK: Springer Shop; 2014. p. 886.
Almansba R, Sterkowiczc S, Belkacem R, Sterkowicz-Przybycien K, Mahdad D. Anthropometrical and physiological profiles of the algerian olympic judoists. Arch Budo Sci Martial Arts 2010;6:185-93.
Changela PK, Bhatt S. The correlational study of the vertical jump test andwingate cycle test as a method to assess anaerobicpower in high school basketball players. Int J Sci Res Publ 2012;2:1-6.
Ross CC. The Binge Eating and Compulsive Overeating. USA: Workbook New Harbinger Publications; 2009.
Summerfield L. Nutrition, Exercise, and Behavior: An Integrated Approach to Weight Management. USA: Cengage Learning; 2015.
Ledrappier P. Survival Guide for Use Fathers divorcing. Lausanne: Lausanne; 2006. p. 256.
Magee DJ, Zachazewski JE, Quillen WS. Scientific Foundations and Principles of Practice in Musculoskeletal. US: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2007. p. 653.
Ehrman JK. Clinical Exercise Physiology. US: Human Kinetics; 2009. p. 123.
Turley J, Thompson J. Nutrition: Your Life Science. US: Cengage Learning; 2015. p. 184.
Fink H, Mikesky AE. Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. US: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2013. p. 311.
Porcari J, Bryant C, Comana F. Exercise Physiology. USA: F.A. Davis; 2015. p. 448.
Sagiv MS. Exercise Cardiopulmonary Function in Cardiac Patients. UK: Springer Shop; 2012. p. 237.
Gamble P. Strength and Conditioning for Team Sports. USA: Routledge; 2013. p. 24.
Thygerson AL, Thygerson SM. Fit to Be Well. USA: Jones & Bartelett Learning; 2015. p. 74.
Jay H. Physiological Aspects of Sport Training and Performance. US: Human Kinetics; 2014. p. 41.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM′s Resources for the Health Fitness Specialist. USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2013. p. 46.
Sullivan GM, Pomidor AK. Exercise for Aging Adults: A Guide for Practitioners. UK: Springer Shop; 2015. p. 4.
Yarbro CH, Wujcik D, Gobel BH. Cancer Symptom Management. US: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2013. p. 351.
Caroline J, Martin H, Watson RR, Preedy VR. Nutrition and Diet in Menopause. UK: Springer Shop; 2013. p. 37.
Rabe KF, Wedzicha JA, Wouters EF. European Respiratory Monograph 59: COPD and Comorbidity. European: European Respiratory Society; 2013. p. 18.
Moore FO, Rhee PM, Tisherman SA. Surgical Critical Care and Emergency Surgery: Clinical Questions and Answers. UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2012. p. 380.
El-Solh A. Critical Care Management of the Obese Patient. USA: Wiley Blackwell; 2012. p. 76.
DeLisa JA, Gans BM, Walsh NE. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2005. p. 403.
Kanosue K, Oshima S, Cao Z. Physical Activity, Exercise, Sedentary Behavior and Health. UK: Springer Shop; 2015. p. 309.
Cifu DX. Braddom′s Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. UK: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015. p. 608.
Das UN. Metabolic Syndrome Pathophysiology: The Role of Essential Fatty Acids. USA: Wiley Blackwell; 2010. p. 49.
Bradley TD, Floras JS. Implications in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. USA: CRC Press; 2009. p. 129.
Donner C, Goldstein R, Ambrosino N. Pulmonary Rehabilitation. UK: CRC Press; 2005. p. 122.
Loue S, Sajatovic M. Encyclopedia of Women′s Health. UK: Springer Shop; 2004. p. 258.
Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR; American College of Sports Medicine. American college of sports medicine position stand: Physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36:1985-96.
de Moraes AM, Gonçalves EM, Barbeta VJ, Guerra-Júnior G. Cross-sectional study of the association of body composition and physical fitness with bone status in children and adolescents from 11 to 16 years old. BMC Pediatr 2013;13:117.
González M, y otros. Manual of Operation the HELENA Study. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza; 2014. p. 181.
McLester J, St. Pierre P. Applied Biomechanics: Concepts and Connections. US: Cengage Learning; 2007. p. 146.
Mohammed Z. Impact of preventing pregnancy methods and their relationships with the level of growth fitness body health housewife case women newlyweds. Am J Sports Sci Med 2015;3:90-5.
Mohammed Z. Which causal relationship established the effect of the control technique contraceptives on weight gain case housewives newlyweds. Int J Humanit Soc Sci 2016;7:47-58.
Winnick JP, Short FX. Brockport Physical Fitness Test Manual. US: Human Kinetics; 1999. p. 133.
lrwin ML. ACSM′s Guide to Exercise and Cancer Survivorship. USA: Human Kinetics; 2011. p. 74.
Kathleen H, Getchell N. Life Span Motor Development. 6 th
ed. USA: Human Kinetics; 2014. p. 307.
Wilmott RW, Boat TF, Bush A. Kendig and Chernick′s Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children. China: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012. p. 664.
Pate R, Oria M, Pillsbury L. Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth. US: National Academies Press; 2012. p. 5-30.
Kopelman PG, Caterson ID, Dietz WH. Clinical Obesity in Adults and Children. US: Blackwell Publishing; 2008. p. 377.
Sothern MS. Safe and Effective Exercise for Overweight Youth. UK: CRC Press; 2014. p. 29.
Hafeez AR. An analysis of physical performance between backward and forward walking training in young healthy individuals. Saudi J Sports Med 2016;16:68-73.
Gaesser G. Big Fat Lies: The Truth About Your Weight and Your Health. USA: Scholary Editions; 2013. p. 79.
Huotari PR. Issues in Orthopedics and Occupational and Sports. USA: Scholary Editions; 2012. p. 144.
Pucher J, Buehler R. City Cycling. UK: The MIT Press; 2012. p. 1.
Mechanick JI, Brett EM. Nutritional Strategies for the Diabetic/Prediabetic Patient. USA: CRC Press; 2006. p. 297.
Bambang B, Sukarno S. An analysis on women′s physical activities participation. Eur J Phys Educ Sport Sci 2015;1:19-26.
Rahman I, Bagchi D. Inflammation, Advancing Age and Nutrition. USA: Elsevier; 2013. p. 279.
Kelly LE, Melograno VJ. Developing the Physical Education Curriculum an Achievement-Based Approach. USA: Waveland Press; 2014. p. 58.
Antonetti V. Total Fitness for Women - U.K. Edition. U.K: No Paper Press; 2013. p. 8.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]